What is industrial ecology?

I ran across the term "industrial ecology" in the latest FastCompany - "Feeding the Beast, Sustainability is about more than eco-friendly burger boxes" - and went straight to Wikipedia, which defines it as "the shifting of industrial process fromlinear (open loop) systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes."

John Ehrenfeld's essay argues for more mindful engagement with objects, citing as his favorite example the two-button toilet, which requires the user select a smaller or larger flush volume.

The International Society for Industrial Ecology is located here and posts this history, which traces the words back to a 1989 Scientific American article, "Strategies for Manufacturing."

Wayne