Pasta&Vinegar links to an interesting piece that argues consciousness is not confined to our skulls.
Hutchins’s claim (which he developed in his book Cognition in the Wild) is that cognitive science was fundamentally flawed since its focus was to put cognitive properties inside the person and not in the social and material world.... This paper [Imagining the Cognitive Life of Things shows] how interaction are richly multimodal creating emergent cognitive effects.
Edwin Hutchins argues for a "cognitive ecology" that gives rise to reasoning and imagination, sometimes referred to as distributed cognition. Approaching the subject from another discipline, the philosopher David Chalmers identifies three variations on the theme of distributed cognition in Consciousness and its Place in Nature.
Both authors suggest a source for consciousness that is in part non-biological.